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    pathophysiology of multiple pregnancy slideshare

    Polyhydramnios is the presence of amniotic fluid >95th centile. Multiple pregnancies constitute significant risk to both mother and fetuses. Velamentous umbilical cord insertion may contribute to the development of unequal fetal blood volumes because the membranously inserted [] Prevention Delivery up to 2 weeks earlier or On the other hand, some modifications to basic life support are recommended for pregnant victims of cardiac arrest after the 20th week of gestation [36, 38]. Definition. Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Deficiency occurs in 0.5 to 1.5% of pregnant women; megaloblastic macrocytic anemia is present if deficiency is moderate or severe. [2] Women carrying multiple gestations may be initially asymptomatic or may have normal signs and symptoms of pregnancy (eg, breast tenderness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting). The prognosis is usually good, with only 1% of structurally normal fetuses on ultrasound having an associated congenital abnormality. Available at: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder with multiple causes, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters that roughly approximate specific developmental stages. Multiple pregnancies are becoming increasingly common in the United States due to the expanded use of fertility treatments and older maternal age at childbirth.1, 2, 3 The vast majority (97-98%) are twin pregnancies. History. A pregnancy can be multiple gestations, as in the case of twins or triplets. Multiple gestations may be suspected in the setting of hyperemesis gravidarum or in a patient who has undergone assisted reproductive technology. The diagnosis of pregnancy requires a multifaceted approach using 3 main diagnostic tools. The incidence of pre-eclampsia ranges from 3% to 7% for nulliparas and 1% to 3% for multiparas. Identical multiples also may result if the fertilized egg splits after transfer. -early cord clamping and controlled cord traction. Coitus and conception are the initial stages that occur in humans that allow for the establishment of pregnancy. Normal Pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced hypertension with onset after 20 weeks' gestation without proteinuria or end-organ dysfunction. It can be the most common twins or even triplets and quadruplets. Gestational hypertension. When a woman carries more than one foetus in a pregnancy, it is called multiple pregnancy. Slide 28 -. Gestational hypertension. Management of Multiple Pregnancy. Active management of 3rd stage of labour to prevent PPH. Gestational diabetes allows you to more likely to develop form 2 diabetes, but the item wont absolutely happen. Introduction Hypertension is one of the most common complication during pregnancy Increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality It is a sign of an underlying pathology that may be pre- existing or appears for the first time during pregnancy that is why it 20 weeks' gestation. Abstract. THROMBOCYTOPENIA Immune Thrombocytopenias (ITP) formerly known as immune thrombocytopenia purpura and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Cirrhosis Splenomegaly Gauchers disease Familial thrombocytopenia Chemotherapy, radiotherapy Babesiosis, Dengue, Onyalai, Rocky mountain spotted fever Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Normally, the majority of adult hemoglobin is composed of four protein chains, two and two -globin chains arranged into a heterotetramer. In vitro fertilization (IVF) can lead to a multiple pregnancy if more than one embryo is transferred to the uterus. Multiple Pregnancy: Causes, Symptom and Types - Women looking for the Best Gynecologist in Chandigarh can surely visit Chaitanya Hospital. [2] Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms; [2] however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section. Pathophysiology: Presence of solitary, deep arteriovenous channels within the capillary beds of the villous tissue. Mothers carrying two or more fetuses need more calories, protein and other nutrients, including folic acid. [57] It occurs in about 0.08% of all pregnancies. Gestational Diabetes. There are two types of twinningidentical and fraternal. Pregnancy is considered to last. Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, preterm birth, perinatal death, and intrauterine growth restriction. Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Currently, physicians may use all of these tools to diagnose pregnancy at early gestation and to help rule out other pathologies. History. Many of them are also animated. The pregnancy A multiple pregnancy tends to be shorter than a single pregnancy. The average gestation for twins is 37 weeks, for triplets 34 weeks and for quadruplets, 33 weeks . Effects of pregnancy Exacerbation of common disorders - Sickness, nausea and heartburn may be more persistent and more trouble. Introduction.

    symptoms of pregnancy 1-Amenorrhoea: abrupt cessation of menses in a woman with regular cycle is highly suggestive. These are history and physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and ultrasonography. Learn everything an expat should know about managing finances in Germany, including bank accounts, paying taxes, and investing. 266 days from the time of conception. Multiple births are increasing in the United States and account for a large proportion of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Multiple pregnancy complications | Discover types of multiples & risks The duration of gestation decreases with increasing fetal number producing preterm birth. Antepartum complications-including preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine fetal demise, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia-develop in over 80% of multiple pregnancies as compared with It can also increase the chance of placental abruption (early detachment of the placenta). Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with an autoimmune role its pathogenesis. Browse our listings to find jobs in Germany for expats, including jobs for English speakers or those in your native language. Hypertension in pregnancy Dr-Rashna Sharmin Juthi MBBS Eastern Medical College and Hospital 2. Slide 27 -. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It typically lasts 9 months. Also known as gestational hypertension. Delivery date is estimated based on the last menstrual period. They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. multiple pregnancy: Definition Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy where more than one fetus develops simultaneously in the womb. -maintain oxytocin infusion for about 2 hours post partum. Pregnancy. Usually, your pancreas will make enough insulin to manage that. Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. Liu Wei Department of Ob & Gy Renji hospital. 280 days from the first day of the last menstrual period if periods occur regularly every 28 days. What Is a Heterotopic Pregnancy? 3. TWIN PREGNANCY Twin pregnancy is the commonest variety of multiple pregnancy. It is of two types: 1. Dizygotic twins (80%),which results from fertilization of two ova leading to fraternal twin. 2. Monozygotic twins (20%),which results from fertilization of one ova leading to identical twin. It associated with higher incidence of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Password requirements: 6 to 30 characters long; ASCII characters only (characters found on a standard US keyboard); must contain at least 4 different symbols; Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the period during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. Introduction . Description Twins happen naturally about one in every 100 births. It occurs in about 5 percent to 8 percent of all pregnancies. The classification of multiple pregnancy is based on: number of fetuses:twins,triplets,quadruplets, The SlideShare family just got bigger. The term multifetal gestation includes twins, triplets, and higher-order multiples. Causes Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Slideshare During pregnancy, the placenta helps make hormones that can result in a build-up of sugar with your blood. Maternal complaints of excessive weight gain, hyperemesis gravidarum, the sensation of more than one moving fetus, the use of ovulation-inducing drugs, or a family history of dizygotic twins should alert caregivers to the possibility of a multifetal pregnancy. It involves degeneration of the myelin sheath, scarring and/or plaque formation and the eventual loss of axons in both the white and gray matter (McCance & Huether, 2014). The use of fertility drugs to induce ovulation often causes more than one egg to be released from the ovaries and can result in twins, triplets, or more.. Risk factors for natural multifetal pregnancy include advanced maternal age, family history of dizygotic twins, and race. Induced multifetal pregnancies occur following infertility treatment via the use of ovulation-inducing agent or multiple gamete/zygote transfer. Childbirth usually occurs about 38 weeks after conception, or approximately 40 weeks from the start of the last normal menstrual period. Physiology of Pregnancy. In the United States, twin births accounted for 3.1% of all live births in 2002. 1. multiple pregnancies consist of two or more fetuses Twins make up the vast majority (nearly 99%) of multiple gestations. Rupture fetal membranes when contractions are established and deliver. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology of this multisystem disorder, characterized by abnormal vascular response to placentation, is still unclear. Overview. With assisted In the infant or small child, the priming event may come from a number of sources, such as vaccination of the mother during pregnancy or with intrauterine or early post birth infections [33,34]. Physiological changes in pregnancy Dr Megha Aggarwal University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital, Delhi Rarely, severe anemia and glossitis occur. 3. On average, a womans caloric requirements will increase at least 40 percent for a multiple pregnancy. Folate Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy. 2-breast symptoms: tenderness and fullness may be noticed . In other instances, the priming event may occur with the first vaccine inoculation, usually at birth (hepatitis B). Pregnancy Induced Hypertension is a form of high blood pressure in pregnancy. -give ergometrine at delivery of anterior shoulder. Defined as a systolic blood pressure 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure 90 mmHg on 2 separate measurements at least 4 hours apart. Multiple pregnancy leads to a strong increase in obstetric complications, perinatal morbidity, maternal and child mortality rate, congenital malformations, pre-term birth, and long-term social, psychological and financial difficulties. Pregnancy The course that the embryo and the fetus grow in the maternal body Stages of pregnancy Early pregnancy: 12 weeks Mid pregnancy: 13 weeks,27 weeks Late pregnancy:28 weeks

    In the circumstance that a pregnancy has multiple foetuses, there can be a situation where one of these foetuses is outside the uterus and inside a fallopian tube.This is known as a non-viable Ectopic Pregnancy.The foetus that forms within the uterus is considered an intrauterine pregnancy. We would like to show you a description here but the site wont allow us. Folate deficiency increases risk of neural tube defects and possibly fetal alcohol syndrome . 4 The increased incidence in multifetal gestations is true also of higher-order The occurrence of this side effect of ART is a test case for the moral quality of the field. Heterotopic pregnancy is defined as the presence of multiple gestations, with one being present in the uterine cavity and the other outside the uterus, commonly in the fallopian tube and uncommonly in the cervix or ovary. Multiple pregnancy: and identification and correction of reversible causes are common to both pregnant and nonpregnant patients. [13] It was first reported in 1708 as an autopsy finding.

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    In thalassemia, patients have defects in either the or -globin chain, causing production of Delivery before term is a major reason for increased neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in multiple pregnancy. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. Multiple pregnancy..ppt - MULTIPLE PREGNANCY BY DR .S.MACHA MMED(OB The vast majority (97-98%) are twin pregnancies. Physiology of Pregnancy. For sexually active women who are of reproductive age and have regular periods, a period that is 1 wk late is presumptive evidence of pregnancy. Pregnancy is considered to last 266 days from the time of conception or 280 days from the first day of the last menstrual period if periods occur regularly every 28 days. The main cause for this is idiopathic, but structural, viral and diabetes as causes must be investigated for. Your health care provider will help manage your multiple pregnancy based on your: Increased nutrition. 1. Women with multiple fetuses are more than twice as likely to develop high blood pressure of pregnancy. Most multifetal pregnancies are prenatally diagnosed. Get 247 customer support help when you place a homework help service order with us. Practice Essentials. 3-frequency of micturation : pressure on the urinary bladder by enlarging uterus. We will guide you on how to place your essay help, proofreading and editing your draft fixing the grammar, spelling, or formatting of your paper easily and cheaply. Todays seminar Introduction Why to know the changes during pegnancy Systems affected Anaesthetic implications Changes during labour Changes during puerperium. The more fetuses, the higher the complications. This condition often develops earlier and is more severe than pregnancy with one baby. Pathophysiology. Chaitanya Hospital is the best Baby delivery hospital in Chandigarh with the double advantage of being a hospital that caters to all the medical needs of a woman and child. Read more about multiple births including its causes, risks and the various special precautions that mothers need to take to ensure a safe delivery.

    Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a condition wherein vasospasm occurs during pregnancy in both the small and large arteries in the body. Multiple Pregnancy When more than one fetus simultaneously develops in the uterus, it is called multiple pregnancy. Salpingectomy specimen. In addition, these pregnancies often present a challenge in management for the obstetrician.

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